Use of Pronouns with top 31 rule

Use of Pronouns

जैसा की हमने Pronoun and its Use नामक आर्टिकल में बताया कि Pronoun क्या है ? इसके कितने प्रकार है ? nominative case, objective case में Pronoun का use कैसे करें ? इस आर्टिकल में हम 31 rule के बारे में बतायेगे। Use of Pronouns (top 31 rule) नामक आर्टिकल में हम personal pronouns examples, pronoun rules, pronoun examples के साथ pronoun sentences के बारे में वर्णन करेंगे। तो चलिए शुरू करते है –

Use of Pronouns in English Grammar
Use of Pronoun

1.) ‘Let’ के बाद Objective Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है। चूकि Let Transitive Verb है।

जैसे –

  1. Let him go. (Let he go.)
  2. Let you and me go. (Let you and I go.)

2.) Preposition के बाद Objective Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है, न कि Nominative Case के Pronoun का।

जैसे –

  1. Mohan laughed at you and me. (Mohan laughed at you and I.)
  2. Divide these mangoes betwen her and me. (Divide these mangoes between she and I.)

3.) सामान्यतः like तथा unlike का प्रयोग Verb के रूप में होता है। like तथा unlike का प्रयोग Preposition के रूप में भी होता है जब इसका प्रयोग Preposition  के रूप में होता है तब इसके बाद objective case Pronounका प्रयोग होता है, न कि Nominative case Pronoun का।

जैसे –

  1. You are like her. (You are like she.)
  2. My daughter looks like me. (My daughter looks like I.)

4.) But का प्रयोग Preposition के रूप में होने पर इसका अर्थ except (के सिवा/ अलावे) होता है तथा इसके पहले all, none, every, any, no, everthing, everybody, no where etc.का प्रयोग होता रहता है। अतः इस case में Verb के पहले But + Nominative/ Objective Case का प्रयोग होता है। But + Nominative Case का प्रयोग बेहतर होता है।
लेकिन Verb के बाद But + Objective Case का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –

  1. Everyone but she knew the answer.
  2. Everyone but her knew the answer.
  3. Everyone was there but me. (Everyone was there but I.)

5.) Gerund (Main Verb + ing) के बाद Objective Case के pronoun का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –

  1. Talking him was not pleasant. (Taking he was not pleasant.)
  2. Visiting us is delightful. (Visiting we is delightful.)

6.) Infinitve (To + Verb 1form) के पहले और बाद  Objective Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –

  1. I requested her to come here. (I requested she to come here.)
  2. Mohan hopes to meet me soon. (Mohan hopes to meet I soon.)

7.) To be (to + be = to + Main Verb 1form) infinitive होता है। इसके पहले और बाद objective case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –

  1. You guessed him to be me. (You guessed he to be I.)

8.) यदि दो nominatives के बिच तुलना हो तो As/ than के बाद Nominative Case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –

  1. Mukesh is as fat as I. (Mukesh is as fat as me.)
  2. I run faster than he. (I run faster than him.)

9.) It का प्रयोग जानवर, निर्जीव पदार्थ, देश, बच्चा [child/ baby जिसका sex पता नहीं] के लिए होता है।

जैसे –

  1. Where is your cat? It has drunk my milk.
  2. I have a chair. It is broken.
  3. India is a country. It is very big.

10.) तीनों Persons के Pronouns का प्रयोग एक साथ करना हो तो 231 के Pronouns के sequence (क्रम) को follow (अनुकरण) किया जाता है।

जैसे –

  1. You, he and I go there.
  2. You, I and he go there.
  3. He, you and I go there.
  4. I, you and he go there.

Note :
>a. लेकिन दो Persons के Pronouns का प्रयोग एक साथ करना हो तो (2, 3), (2, 1) और (3, 1) के Pronouns के sequence (क्रम) को follow (अनुकरण) किया जाता है।
जैसे –

  1. You and he went to school.
  2. He and you went to school.
  3. You and I study here.
  4. I and you study here.
  5. He and I read the Ramayana.
  6. I and he read the Ramanyana.

>b. तीनों Persons के Pronouns का प्रयोग एक साथ भूल, दोष, पाप, अपराध (bad sense में)का बोध करने के लिए हो, तो 123 के Pronouns के sequence (क्रम) को follow (अनुकरण) किया जाता है।
जैसे –

  1. I, you and he are criminals.
  2. I, he and you are criminals.
  3. You, I and he are criminals.
  4. He, you and I are criminals.
  5. He, I and you are criminals.

>c. लेकिन दो Persons के Pronouns का प्रयोग एक साथ भूल, दोष, पाप, अपराध (bad sense में)का बोध करने के लिए हो, तो (1, 2), (1, 3) और (2, 3) के Pronouns के sequence (क्रम) को follow (अनुकरण) किया जाता है।
जैसे –

  1. I and you are guilty.
  2. You and I are guilty.
  3. I and he are guilty.
  4. He and I are guilty.
  5. You and he are guilty.
  6. He and you are guilty.

>d. यदि किसी sentence/ clause में एक subject हो तो इसके साथ दूसरे Subject के रूप में Personal pronoun He, she, it …. etc. का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।
जैसे –

  1. My book it has been stolen.
  2. My book has been stolen.
  3. The woman she is tired needs rest.
  4. The woman is tired needs rest.

>e. यदि किसी sentence/ clause में एक object हो तो इसके साथ दूसरे object के रूप में Personal pronoun him, her, it …. etc. का प्रयोग नहीं होता है।
जैसे –

  1. He has to give Binay him some money.
  2. He has to give Binay some money.
  3. She will not lend the book it to me.
  4. She will not lend the book to me.

11.) यदि noun का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तो noun के number, gender, person तथा case के मुताबिक pronoun का प्रयोग होता है

जैसे –
  1. Aditya is an intelligent boy.
  2. He gets the first prize.
  3. Aditi is a good girl.
  4. She is loved by  her parents.
  5. These boys are idle.
  6. They will fail in the examination.
  7. The knife is blunt.
  8. It is of no use.
  9. These mangoes are sour.
  10. They are not good to eat.

12.) यदि collective noun का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तथा इससे ‘समूह’ का बोध हो तो इसके लिए singular pronouns and adjective – it, its, itself का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है न कि thery, them, their, themselves, he him, his himself तथा one, one’s oneself का

जैसे –
  1. The army had to suffer terrible privations in its march. (The army had to suffer terrible privations in their march.)
  2. The fleet will reach its destination in a week. (The fleet will reach their destination in a week.)
  3. The jury has given its verdict. (The jury has given their verdict.)

13.) यदि collective noun का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तथा इससे serparate individuals (अलग-अलग व्यक्तियों या सदस्यों) का बोध हो तो इसे plural माना जाता है तथा इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective – they, them, their, theirs, themselves का प्रयोग होता है न कि he, him, himself, it its, itself one, one’s, oneself का

जैसे –
  1. The committee diecided the matter without leaving their seats. (The  committee decided the matter without leaving its seats.)
  2. The team are divided in their opinions about playing on Sunday. (The team are divided in its opinions about playing on Sunday.)
  3. The Jury were divided in their opinions. (The jury were divided in its opinions.)

14.) यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns ‘and’ से जुड़कर प्रयुक्त हो तो इसके लिए plural pronoun और Adjective – They, them, their, theirs, themselves का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे
  1. Aditya and Aman work hard. – They are praised by their teacher.
  2. Both Adit Priya and Nitika are tired. – They have gone home.

15.) यदि दो singular nouns ‘and’ से जुड़े हो तथा first singular noun के पहले Articles or Possessive Adjectives का प्रयोग हुआ हो तो इससे एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध होता है तथा इसके लिए singular pronoun और adjective he, him, his, himself का प्रयोग व्यक्ति के लिए तथा it, its, itself का प्रयोग वस्तु के लिए होता है न कि they, them their, theirs, themselves का। जैसे –

जैसे –
  1. The secretary and trasurer is negligent of his duty. (The secretary and trasurer is negligent of their/ its duty.)
  2. The Magistrate and collector has prepared his statement. (The Magistrate and collector has prepared their/ its statement.)

16.) यदि दो singular nouns ‘and’ से जुड़े हो तथा प्रत्येक singular noun के पहले Articles or possessive adjectives का प्रयोग हो तो इससे two different persons or things (दो विभिन्न व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं) का बोध होता है तथा इसके लिए Plural pronouns Adjective – They, them, their, theirs, themselves का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है।

जैसे –
  1. The Principal and the Secretary have tendered their resignation. (The Principal and the Secretary had tendered his resignation.)
  2. The scientist and the thinker have expressed themselves against the use of atom bombs. (The scientist and the thinker have expressed himself against the use of atom bombs.)

17.) यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns ‘and’ से जुड़े हो तथा first singular noun के पहले each or every का प्रयोग हुआ हो या प्रत्येक singular noun के पहले each or every का प्रयोग हुआ हो तो इसे singular माना जाता है तथा इसके लिए singular pronouns और adjective का प्रयोग होता है न कि plural pronouns का।

जैसे –
  1. Every soldier and every sailor was in his place.  (Every soldier and every sailor was in its/ their place.)
  2. Each man and woman should try to help his or her follow beings. (Each man and woman should try to help their follow beings.)

18.) यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns or, either ……. or तथा neither ……..nor से जुड़े हो तो इसके लिए singular pronouns और adjective का प्रयोग होता है न कि plural pronouns का।

जैसे
  1. Rudransh or Aditya has lost his book. (Rundransh or Aditya has lost their book.)
  2. Neither Ramanand nor Surjeet has done his work. (Neither Ramanand nor Surjeet has done their work.)

19.) यदि एक singular तथा एक प्लुरल noun or तथा nor से जुड़े हो तथा or/ nor के बाद plural noun का प्रयोग हो तो इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –
  1. Either the manager or his assistants failed in their duty. (Either the manager or his assistants failed in his duty.)
  2. Neither Dhiraj nor his friends admitted their fault. (Neither Dhiraj nor his friends admitted his fault.)

20.) यदि दो nouns ‘as well as’ से जुड़े हो तो first noun के number, gender, person तथा case के मुताबिक Pronoun और adjective का प्रयोग होता है न कि second noun के मुताबिक।

जैसे –
  1. Binay as well as his friends is doing his work. (Binay as well as his friends is doing their work.)
  2. The students as well as their teachers are doing their work. (The students as well as their teachers are doing his work.)

21.) यदि दो noun ‘with’ से जुड़े हो तो with के पहले प्रयुक्त noun के number, gender, person तथा case के मुताबिक Pronoun और adjective का प्रयोग होता है

जैसे –
  1. The girl with her parents has gone to see a movie. (The girl with their/ his parents has gone to see a movie.)
  2. The children with their parents have gone to picnic. (The children with his/ her/ its parents have gone to picnic.)

22.) यदि दो या दो से अधिक singular nouns ‘and से जुड़े हो तथा इससे एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु का बोध हो तो इसके लिए singular pronoun और adjective का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –
  1. Mr. Sudhir Kumar, my senior and proprietor of ABC Publication, is known for his honesty and good behaviour. (Mr. Sudhir Kumar, my senior and proprietor of ABC Publication, is known for their honesty and good behaviour.)
  2. Delhi, the beautiful city and the capital of India, is famous for its historical monuments. (Delhi, the beautiful city and the capital of India, is famous for their historical monuments.)

23.) Many a/ an + Singular noun का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तो इसके लिए singular pronoun और adjective का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे
  1.  Many a soldier has met his death in the battle of field.
  2.  Many a soldier has met their death in the battle of field.

24.) YOu and I का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो, तो इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective  – we, us, our, ours, ourselves का प्रयोग होता है।

जैसे –
  1. You and I must obey our parents.
  2. You and I must obey your/ my/ their parents.

25.) You and he का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो, तो इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective – you, your, yours, yourself, yourselves, yourselves का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है।

जैसे –
  1. You and he have done your home work.
  2. You and he have done their/ our home work.

26.) He and I का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो, तो इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective – we, us, our, ours, ourselves का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है।

जैसे –
  1. He and I do our lesson ourselves.
  2. He and I do their lesson themselves.

27.) You, he and she का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तो plural pronouns और adjective – you, your, yours, yourselves का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है।

जैसे –
  1. You, he and she go to your school in time.
  2. You, he and she go to our/ their school in time.

28.) You, he and I का प्रयोग sentence के subject के रूप में हो तो इसके लिए plural pronouns और adjective – we, us, our, ours, ourselves  का प्रयोग जरूरत के मुताबिक होता है।

जैसे –
  1. You, he and I have finished our work.
  2. You, he and I have finished their work.

29.) Except के बाद  objective case के pronoun का प्रयोग होता है न कि nominative case के pronoun का।

जैसे –
  1. Everyone attended the party except him.
  2. Everyone attended the party except he.

30.) Such as के बाद Nominative case के Pronoun का प्रयोग होता है न कि objective case के pronoun का।

जैसे –
  1. I have no liking for such a man as he.
  2. I have no liking for such a man as him.

31.) We, you तथा they plural pronouns का एक साथ प्रयोग करना हो तो पहले we इसके बाद you तथा अंत में they का प्रयोग करे।

जैसे –
  • We, you and they must work together.
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